Chapter 9. Connecting to an instance

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You can access an instance from a location external to the cloud by using a remote shell such as SSH or WinRM, when you have allowed the protocol in the instance security group rules. You can also connect directly to the console of an instance, so that you can debug even if the network connection fails.


If you did not provide a key pair to the instance, or allocate a security group to the instance, you can access the instance only from inside the cloud by using VNC. You cannot ping the instance.

9.1. Accessing an instance console

You can connect directly to the VNC console for an instance by entering the VNC console URL in a browser.


  1. To display the VNC console URL for an instance, enter the following command:

    $ openstack console url show <vm_name>
    | Field | Value					     	        |
    | type  | novnc					               |
    | url	|       |
    |	| 962dfd71-f047-43d3-89a5-13cb88261eb9         	  |
  2. To connect directly to the VNC console, enter the displayed URL in a browser.

9.2. Logging in to an instance

You can log in to public instances remotely.


  • You have the key pair certificate for the instance. The certificate is downloaded when the key pair is created. If you did not create the key pair yourself, ask your administrator.
  • The instance is configured as a public instance. For more information on the requirements of a public instance, see Providing public access to an instance.
  • You have a cloud user account.


  1. Retrieve the floating IP address of the instance you want to log in to:

    $ openstack server show <instance>

    Replace <instance> with the name or ID of the instance that you want to connect to.

  2. Use the automatically created cloud-user account to log in to your instance:

    $ ssh -i ~/.ssh/<keypair>.pem cloud-user@<floatingIP>
    [cloud-user@demo-server1 ~]$
    • Replace <keypair> with the name of the key pair.
    • Replace <floating_ip> with the floating IP address of the instance.


      You can use the following command to log in to an instance without the floating IP address:

      $ openstack server ssh --login cloud-user \
       --identity ~/.ssh/<keypair>.pem --private <instance>
      • Replace <keypair> with the name of the key pair.
      • Replace <instance> with the name or ID of the instance that you want to connect to.
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