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Chapter 10. Preparing and uploading cloud images by using RHEL image builder

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RHEL image builder can create custom system images ready for use on various cloud platforms. To use your customized RHEL system image in a cloud, create the system image with RHEL image builder using the chosen output type, configure your system for uploading the image, and upload the image to your cloud account. You can push customized image clouds through the Image Builder application in the RHEL web console, available for a subset of the service providers that we support, such as AWS and Microsoft Azure clouds. See Pushing images to AWS Cloud AMI and Pushing VHD images to Microsoft Azure cloud.

10.1. Preparing to upload AWS AMI images

Before uploading an AWS AMI image, you must configure a system for uploading the images.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Install Python 3 and the pip tool:

    # dnf install python3 python3-pip
  2. Install the AWS command-line tools with pip:

    # pip3 install awscli
  3. Set your profile. The terminal prompts you to provide your credentials, region and output format:

    $ aws configure
    AWS Access Key ID [None]:
    AWS Secret Access Key [None]:
    Default region name [None]:
    Default output format [None]:
  4. Define a name for your bucket and create a bucket:

    $ BUCKET=bucketname
    $ aws s3 mb s3://$BUCKET

    Replace bucketname with the actual bucket name. It must be a globally unique name. As a result, your bucket is created.

  5. To grant permission to access the S3 bucket, create a vmimport S3 Role in the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), if you have not already done so in the past:

    1. Create a trust-policy.json file with the trust policy configuration, in the JSON format. For example:

      {
          "Version": "2022-10-17",
          "Statement": [{
              "Effect": "Allow",
              "Principal": {
                  "Service": "vmie.amazonaws.com"
              },
              "Action": "sts:AssumeRole",
              "Condition": {
                  "StringEquals": {
                      "sts:Externalid": "vmimport"
                  }
              }
          }]
      }
    2. Create a role-policy.json file with the role policy configuration, in the JSON format. For example:

      {
          "Version": "2012-10-17",
          "Statement": [{
              "Effect": "Allow",
              "Action": ["s3:GetBucketLocation", "s3:GetObject", "s3:ListBucket"],
              "Resource": ["arn:aws:s3:::%s", "arn:aws:s3:::%s/"] }, { "Effect": "Allow", "Action": ["ec2:ModifySnapshotAttribute", "ec2:CopySnapshot", "ec2:RegisterImage", "ec2:Describe"],
              "Resource": "*"
          }]
      }
      $BUCKET $BUCKET
    3. Create a role for your Amazon Web Services account, by using the trust-policy.json file:

      $ aws iam create-role --role-name vmimport --assume-role-policy-document file://trust-policy.json
    4. Embed an inline policy document, by using the role-policy.json file:

      $ aws iam put-role-policy --role-name vmimport --policy-name vmimport --policy-document file://role-policy.json

10.2. Uploading an AMI image to AWS by using the CLI

You can use RHEL image builder to build ami images and push them directly to Amazon AWS Cloud service provider, by using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You have an Access Key ID configured in the AWS IAM account manager.
  • You have a writable S3 bucket prepared.
  • You have a defined blueprint.

Procedure

  1. Using the text editor, create a configuration file with the following content:

    provider = "aws"
    
    [settings]
    accessKeyID = "AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID"
    secretAccessKey = "AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY"
    bucket = "AWS_BUCKET"
    region = "AWS_REGION"
    key = "IMAGE_KEY"

    Replace values in the fields with your credentials for accessKeyID, secretAccessKey, bucket, and region. The IMAGE_KEY value is the name of your VM Image to be uploaded to EC2.

  2. Save the file as CONFIGURATION-FILE.toml and close the text editor.
  3. Start the compose to upload it to AWS:

    # composer-cli compose start blueprint-name image-type image-key configuration-file.toml

    Replace:

    • blueprint-name with the name of the blueprint you created
    • image-type with the ami image type.
    • image-key with the name of your VM Image to be uploaded to EC2.
    • configuration-file.toml with the name of the configuration file of the cloud provider.

      Note

      You must have the correct AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) settings for the bucket you are going to send your customized image to. You have to set up a policy to your bucket before you are able to upload images to it.

  4. Check the status of the image build:

    # composer-cli compose status

    After the image upload process is complete, you can see the "FINISHED" status.

Verification

To confirm that the image upload was successful:

  1. Access EC2 on the menu and select the correct region in the AWS console. The image must have the available status, to indicate that it was successfully uploaded.
  2. On the dashboard, select your image and click Launch.

10.3. Pushing images to AWS Cloud AMI

You can create a (.raw) image by using RHEL image builder, and choose to check the Upload to AWS checkbox to push the output image that you create directly to the Amazon AWS Cloud AMI service provider.

Prerequisites

  • You must have root or wheel group user access to the system.
  • You have opened the RHEL image builder interface of the RHEL web console in a browser.
  • You have created a blueprint. See Creating a blueprint in the web console interface.
  • You must have an Access Key ID configured in the AWS IAM account manager.
  • You must have a writable S3 bucket prepared.

Procedure

  1. In the RHEL image builder dashboard, click the blueprint name that you previously created.
  2. Select the tab Images.
  3. Click Create Image to create your customized image.

    The Create Image window opens.

    1. From the Type drop-down menu list, select Amazon Machine Image Disk (.raw).
    2. Check the Upload to AWS checkbox to upload your image to the AWS Cloud and click Next.
    3. To authenticate your access to AWS, type your AWS access key ID and AWS secret access key in the corresponding fields. Click Next.

      Note

      You can view your AWS secret access key only when you create a new Access Key ID. If you do not know your Secret Key, generate a new Access Key ID.

    4. Type the name of the image in the Image name field, type the Amazon bucket name in the Amazon S3 bucket name field and type the AWS region field for the bucket you are going to add your customized image to. Click Next.
    5. Review the information and click Finish.

      Optionally, click Back to modify any incorrect detail.

      Note

      You must have the correct IAM settings for the bucket you are going to send your customized image. This procedure uses the IAM Import and Export, so you have to set up a policy to your bucket before you are able to upload images to it. For more information, see Required Permissions for IAM Users.

  4. A pop-up on the upper right informs you of the saving progress. It also informs that the image creation has been initiated, the progress of this image creation and the subsequent upload to the AWS Cloud.

    After the process is complete, you can see the Image build complete status.

  5. In a browser, access Service→EC2.

    1. On the AWS console dashboard menu, choose the correct region. The image must have the Available status, to indicate that it is uploaded.
    2. On the AWS dashboard, select your image and click Launch.
  6. A new window opens. Choose an instance type according to the resources you need to start your image. Click Review and Launch.
  7. Review your instance start details. You can edit each section if you need to make any changes. Click Launch
  8. Before you start the instance, select a public key to access it.

    You can either use the key pair you already have or you can create a new key pair.

    Follow the next steps to create a new key pair in EC2 and attach it to the new instance.

    1. From the drop-down menu list, select Create a new key pair.
    2. Enter the name to the new key pair. It generates a new key pair.
    3. Click Download Key Pair to save the new key pair on your local system.
  9. Then, you can click Launch Instance to start your instance.

    You can check the status of the instance, which displays as Initializing.

  10. After the instance status is running, the Connect button becomes available.
  11. Click Connect. A window appears with instructions on how to connect by using SSH.

    1. Select A standalone SSH client as the preferred connection method to and open a terminal.
    2. In the location you store your private key, ensure that your key is publicly viewable for SSH to work. To do so, run the command:

      $ chmod 400 _your-instance-name.pem_>
    3. Connect to your instance by using its Public DNS:

      $ ssh -i <_your-instance-name.pem_> ec2-user@<_your-instance-IP-address_>
    4. Type yes to confirm that you want to continue connecting.

      As a result, you are connected to your instance over SSH.

Verification

  • Check if you are able to perform any action while connected to your instance by using SSH.

10.4. Preparing to upload Microsoft Azure VHD images

You can use RHEL image builder to create a VHD image that can be uploaded to Microsoft Azure cloud.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a Microsoft Azure resource group and storage account.
  • You have Python installed. The AZ CLI tool depends on python.

Procedure

  1. Import the Microsoft repository key:

    # rpm --import https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc
  2. Create a local azure-cli.repo repository with the following information. Save the azure-cli.repo repository under /etc/yum.repos.d/:

    [azure-cli]
    name=Azure CLI
    baseurl=https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/vscode
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc
  3. Install the Microsoft Azure CLI:

    # dnfdownloader azure-cli
    # rpm -ivh --nodeps azure-cli-2.0.64-1.el7.x86_64.rpm
    Note

    The downloaded version of the Microsoft Azure CLI package can vary depending on the current available version.

  4. Run the Microsoft Azure CLI:

    $ az login

    The terminal shows the following message Note, we have launched a browser for you to login. For old experience with device code, use "az login --use-device-code. Then, the terminal opens a browser with a link to https://microsoft.com/devicelogin from where you can login.

    Note

    If you are running a remote (SSH) session, the login page link will not open in the browser. In this case, you can copy the link to a browser and login to authenticate your remote session. To sign in, use a web browser to open the page https://microsoft.com/devicelogin and enter the device code to authenticate.

  5. List the keys for the storage account in Microsoft Azure:

    $ az storage account keys list --resource-group <resource_group_name> --account-name <storage_account_name>

    Replace resource-group-name with name of your Microsoft Azure resource group and storage-account-name with name of your Microsoft Azure storage account.

    Note

    You can list the available resources using the following command:

    $ az resource list

Make note of value key1 in the output of the previous command.

  1. Create a storage container:

    $ az storage container create --account-name <storage_account_name>\
    --account-key <key1_value> --name <storage_account_name>

    Replace storage-account-name with name of the storage account.

Additional resources

10.5. Uploading VHD images to Microsoft Azure cloud

After you have created your customized VHD image, you can upload it to the Microsoft Azure cloud.

Prerequisites

  • Your system must be set up for uploading Microsoft Azure VHD images. See Preparing to upload Microsoft Azure VHD images.
  • You must have a Microsoft Azure VHD image created by RHEL image builder.

    • In the CLI, use the vhd output type. NOTE: When creating a .vhd image using the CLI, image builder writes temporary files to the /var subdirectory. To prevent the .vhd image creation from failing, increase the /var subdirectory capacity to at least 15 to 20 GB free space to ensure availability.
    • In the GUI, use the Azure Disk Image (.vhd) image type.

Procedure

  1. Push the image to Microsoft Azure and create an instance from it:

    $ az storage blob upload --account-name <account_name> --container-name <container_name> --file <_image_-disk.vhd> --name <_image_-disk.vhd> --type page
    ...
  2. After the upload to the Microsoft Azure Blob storage completes, create a Microsoft Azure image from it:

    $ az image create --resource-group &lt; _resource_group_name_&gt; --name &lt;_image_-disk.vhd&gt;  --os-type linux --location eastus --source https://$ACCOUNT.blob.core.windows.net/&lt;_container_name_&gt; &lt;_image_-disk.vhd&gt;
     - Running ...

Verification

  1. Create an instance either with the Microsoft Azure portal, or a command similar to the following:

    $ az vm create --resource-group &lt;_resource_group_name_&gt; --location eastus --name &lt;_image_-disk.vhd&gt; --image &lt;_image_-disk.vhd&gt; --admin-username azure-user --generate-ssh-keys
     - Running ...
  2. Use your private key via SSH to access the resulting instance. Log in as azure-user. This username was set on the previous step.

10.6. Pushing VHD images to Microsoft Azure cloud

You can create .vhd images by using RHEL image builder. Then, you can push the output .vhd images to a Blob Storage of the Microsoft Azure Cloud service provider.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. In the RHEL image builder dashboard, select the blueprint you want to use.
  2. Click the Images tab.
  3. Click Create Image to create your customized .vhd image.

    The Create image wizard opens.

    1. Select Microsoft Azure (.vhd) from the Type drop-down menu list.
    2. Check the Upload to Azure checkbox to upload your image to the Microsoft Azure Cloud.
    3. Enter the Image Size and click Next.
  4. On the Upload to Azure page, enter the following information:

    1. On the Authentication page, enter:

      1. Your Storage account name. You can find it on the Storage account page, in the Microsoft Azure portal.
      2. Your Storage access key: You can find it on the Access Key Storage page.
      3. Click Next.
    2. On the Authentication page, enter:

      1. The image name.
      2. The Storage container. It is the blob container to which you will upload the image. Find it under the Blob service section, in the Microsoft Azure portal.
      3. Click Next.
  5. On the Review page, click Create. The RHEL image builder and upload processes start.

    Access the image you pushed into Microsoft Azure Cloud.

  6. Access the Microsoft Azure portal.
  7. In the search bar, type "storage account" and click Storage accounts from the list.
  8. On the search bar, type "Images" and select the first entry under Services. You are redirected to the Image dashboard.
  9. On the navigation panel, click Containers.
  10. Find the container you created. Inside the container is the .vhd file you created and pushed by using RHEL image builder.

Verification

  1. Verify that you can create a VM image and launch it.

    1. In the search bar, type images account and click Images from the list.
    2. Click +Create.
    3. From the dropdown list, choose the resource group you used earlier.
    4. Enter a name for the image.
    5. For the OS type, select Linux.
    6. For the VM generation, select Gen 2.
    7. Under Storage Blob, click Browse and click through the storage accounts and container until you reach your VHD file.
    8. Click Select at the end of the page.
    9. Choose an Account Type, for example, Standard SSD.
    10. Click Review + Create and then Create. Wait a few moments for the image creation.
  2. To launch the VM, follow the steps:

    1. Click Go to resource.
    2. Click + Create VM from the menu bar on the header.
    3. Enter a name for your virtual machine.
    4. Complete the Size and Administrator account sections.
    5. Click Review + Create and then Create. You can see the deployment progress.

      After the deployment finishes, click the virtual machine name to retrieve the public IP address of the instance to connect by using SSH.

    6. Open a terminal to create an SSH connection to connect to the VM.

10.7. Creating a customized RHEL VMDK system image by using RHEL image builder

With RHEL image builder, you can create customized system images in the Open virtualization format (.ova). You can upload these images to the VMware vSphere client. The Open virtualization format (.ova) is a .vmdk image with additional metadata about the virtual hardware, which contains a minimal template. After importing the .ova image to the vSphere client, you can configure it with any additional hardware, such as network, disks, and CD ROMS.

You can import the Open virtualization format (.ova) image by using either the vSphere GUI or the govc client. To upload the image by using the govc client, see Uploading VMDK images and creating a RHEL virtual machine in vSphere.

Prerequisites

  • You opened the RHEL image builder app from the web console in a browser.
  • You created a blueprint.

Procedure

  1. In the RHEL image builder dashboard, click the Blueprint tab.
  2. On the blueprint table, find the blueprint you want to build an image.
  3. On the right side of the chosen blueprint, click Create Image. The Create image dialog wizard opens.
  4. On the Image output page, complete the following steps:

    1. From the Select a blueprint list, select the image type you want.
    2. From the Image output type list, select the image output type you want.
    3. Optional: Check Upload to VMWare checkbox to upload the image directly to VMware.
    4. Enter a size for the image.
    5. Click Next.
  5. On the Upload to VMware page, enter the following information:

    1. Image name: Enter the image name.
    2. Host: Enter the VMware vSphere instance URL where the image file will be uploaded.
    3. Cluster: Enter the cluster name page to which the image will be uploaded.
    4. Datacenter: Datacenter name to which the image will be uploaded.
    5. Datastore: Datastore name to which the image will be uploaded.
    6. Folder: Folder name to which the image will be uploaded.
    7. Click Next.
  6. On the Review page, review the details about the image creation and click Create.

    The image creation starts, the progress of this image creation and the subsequent upload to the VMware vSphere client.

10.8. Uploading VMDK images and creating a RHEL virtual machine in vSphere

With RHEL image builder, you can create customized VMware vSphere system images, either in the Open virtualization format (.ova) or in the Virtual disk (.vmdk) format. You can upload these images to the VMware vSphere client. You can upload the .vmdk or .ova image to VMware vSphere using the govc import.vmdk CLI tool. The vmdk you create contains the cloud-init package installed and you can use it to provision users by using user data, for example.

Note

Uploading vmdk images by using the VMware vSphere GUI is not supported.

Prerequisites

  • You created a blueprint with username and password customizations.
  • You created a VMware vSphere image either in the .ova or .vmdk format by using RHEL image builder and downloaded it to your host system.
  • You installed and configured the govc CLI tool, to be able use the import.vmdk command.

Procedure

  1. Configure the following values in the user environment with the GOVC environment variables:

    GOVC_URL
    GOVC_DATACENTER
    GOVC_FOLDER
    GOVC_DATASTORE
    GOVC_RESOURCE_POOL
    GOVC_NETWORK
  2. Navigate to the directory where you downloaded your VMware vSphere image.
  3. Launch the VMware vSphere image on vSphere by following the steps:

    1. Import the VMware vSphere image in to vSphere:

      $ govc import.vmdk ./composer-api.vmdk foldername

      For the .ova format:

      $ govc import.ova ./composer-api.ova foldername
    2. Create the VM in vSphere without powering it on:

      govc vm.create \
      -net.adapter=vmxnet3 \
      -m=4096 -c=2 -g=rhel8_64Guest \
      -firmware=efi -disk=”foldername/composer-api.vmdk” \
      -disk.controller=scsi -on=false \
       vmname

      For the .ova format, replace the line -firmware=efi -disk=”foldername/composer-api.vmdk” \ with `-firmware=efi -disk=”foldername/composer-api.ova” \

    3. Power-on the VM:

      govc vm.power -on vmname
    4. Retrieve the VM IP address:

      govc vm.ip vmname
    5. Use SSH to log in to the VM, using the username and password you specified in your blueprint:

      $ ssh admin@<_ip_address_of_the_vm_>
      Note

      If you copied the .vmdk image from your local host to the destination using the govc datastore.upload command, using the resulting image is not supported. There is no option to use the import.vmdk command in the vSphere GUI and as a result, the vSphere GUI does not support the direct upload. As a consequence, the .vmdk image is not usable from the vSphere GUI.

10.9. Uploading images to GCP with RHEL image builder

With RHEL image builder, you can build a gce image, provide credentials for your user or GCP service account, and then upload the gce image directly to the GCP environment.

10.9.1. Uploading a gce image to GCP by using the CLI

Follow the procedure to set up a configuration file with credentials to upload your gce image to GCP.

Warning

You cannot manually import gce image to GCP, because the image will not boot. You must use either gcloud or RHEL image builder to upload it.

Prerequisites

  • You have a valid Google account and credentials to upload your image to GCP. The credentials can be from a user account or a service account. The account associated with the credentials must have at least the following IAM roles assigned:

    • roles/storage.admin - to create and delete storage objects
    • roles/compute.storageAdmin - to import a VM image to Compute Engine.
  • You have an existing GCP bucket.

Procedure

  1. By using a text editor, create a gcp-config.toml configuration file with the following content:

    provider = "gcp"
    
    [settings]
    bucket = "GCP_BUCKET"
    region = "GCP_STORAGE_REGION"
    object = "OBJECT_KEY"
    credentials = "GCP_CREDENTIALS"
    • GCP_BUCKET points to an existing bucket. It is used to store the intermediate storage object of the image which is being uploaded.
    • GCP_STORAGE_REGION is both a regular Google storage region and, a dual or multi region.
    • OBJECT_KEY is the name of an intermediate storage object. It must not exist before the upload, and it is deleted when the upload process is done. If the object name does not end with .tar.gz, the extension is automatically added to the object name.
    • GCP_CREDENTIALS is a Base64-encoded scheme of the credentials JSON file downloaded from GCP. The credentials determine which project the GCP uploads the image to.

      Note

      Specifying GCP_CREDENTIALS in the gcp-config.toml file is optional if you use a different mechanism to authenticate with GCP. For other authentication methods, see Authenticating with GCP.

  2. Retrieve the GCP_CREDENTIALS from the JSON file downloaded from GCP.

    $ sudo base64 -w 0 cee-gcp-nasa-476a1fa485b7.json
  3. Create a compose with an additional image name and cloud provider profile:

    $ sudo composer-cli compose start BLUEPRINT-NAME gce IMAGE_KEY gcp-config.toml

    The image build, upload, and cloud registration processes can take up to ten minutes to complete.

Verification

  • Verify that the image status is FINISHED:

    $ sudo composer-cli compose status

10.9.2. How RHEL image builder sorts the authentication order of different GCP credentials

You can use several different types of credentials with RHEL image builder to authenticate with GCP. If RHEL image builder configuration is set to authenticate with GCP using multiple sets of credentials, it uses the credentials in the following order of preference:

  1. Credentials specified with the composer-cli command in the configuration file.
  2. Credentials configured in the osbuild-composer worker configuration.
  3. Application Default Credentials from the Google GCP SDK library, which tries to automatically find a way to authenticate by using the following options:

    1. If the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable is set, Application Default Credentials tries to load and use credentials from the file pointed to by the variable.
    2. Application Default Credentials tries to authenticate by using the service account attached to the resource that is running the code. For example, Google Compute Engine VM.

      Note

      You must use the GCP credentials to determine which GCP project to upload the image to. Therefore, unless you want to upload all of your images to the same GCP project, you always must specify the credentials in the gcp-config.toml configuration file with the composer-cli command.

10.9.2.1. Specifying GCP credentials with the composer-cli command

You can specify GCP authentication credentials in the upload target configuration gcp-config.toml file. Use a Base64-encoded scheme of the Google account credentials JSON file to save time.

Procedure

  1. Get the encoded content of the Google account credentials file with the path stored in GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable, by running the following command:

    $ base64 -w 0 "${GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS}"
  2. In the upload target configuration gcp-config.toml file, set the credentials:

    provider = "gcp"
    
    [settings]
    provider = "gcp"
    
    [settings]
    ...
    credentials = "GCP_CREDENTIALS"

10.9.2.2. Specifying credentials in the osbuild-composer worker configuration

You can configure GCP authentication credentials to be used for GCP globally for all image builds. This way, if you want to import images to the same GCP project, you can use the same credentials for all image uploads to GCP.

Procedure

  • In the /etc/osbuild-worker/osbuild-worker.toml worker configuration, set the following credential value:

    [gcp]
    credentials = "PATH_TO_GCP_ACCOUNT_CREDENTIALS"

10.10. Pushing VMDK images to vSphere using the RHEL image builder GUI tool

You can build VMware images by using the RHEL image builder GUI tool and push the images directly to your vSphere instance, to avoid having to download the image file and push it manually. The vmdk you create contains the cloud-init package installed and you can use it to provision users by using user data, for example. To build .vmdk images by using RHEL image builder and push them directly to vSphere instances service provider, follow the steps:

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. For the blueprint you created, click the Images tab .
  2. Click Create Image to create your customized image.

    The Image type window opens.

  3. In the Image type window:

    1. From the dropdown menu, select the Type: VMware vSphere (.vmdk).
    2. Check the Upload to VMware checkbox to upload your image to the vSphere.
    3. Optional: Set the size of the image you want to instantiate. The minimal default size is 2 GB.
    4. Click Next.
  4. In the Upload to VMware window, under Authentication, enter the following details:

    1. Username: username of the vSphere account.
    2. Password: password of the vSphere account.
  5. In the Upload to VMware window, under Destination, enter the following details about the image upload destination:

    1. Image name: a name for the image.
    2. Host: The URL of your VMware vSphere.
    3. Cluster: The name of the cluster.
    4. Data center: The name of the data center.
    5. Data store:The name of the Data store.
    6. Click Next.
  6. In the Review window, review the details of the image creation and click Finish.

    You can click Back to modify any incorrect detail.

    RHEL image builder adds the compose of a RHEL vSphere image to the queue, and creates and uploads the image to the Cluster on the vSphere instance you specified.

    Note

    The image build and upload processes take a few minutes to complete.

    After the process is complete, you can see the Image build complete status.

Verification

After the image status upload is completed successfully, you can create a Virtual Machine (VM) from the image you uploaded and login into it. To do so:

  1. Access VMware vSphere Client.
  2. Search for the image in the Cluster on the vSphere instance you specified.
  3. Select the image you uploaded.
  4. Right-click the selected image.
  5. Click New Virtual Machine.

    A New Virtual Machine window opens.

    In the New Virtual Machine window, provide the following details:

    1. Select New Virtual Machine.
    2. Select a name and a folder for your VM.
    3. Select a computer resource: choose a destination computer resource for this operation.
    4. Select storage: For example, select NFS-Node1
    5. Select compatibility: The image should be BIOS only.
    6. Select a guest operating system: For example, select Linux and Red Hat Fedora (64-bit).
    7. Customize hardware: When creating a VM, on the Device Configuration button on the upper right, delete the default New Hard Disk and use the drop-down to select an Existing Hard Disk disk image:
    8. Ready to complete: Review the details and click Finish to create the image.
  6. Navigate to the VMs tab.

    1. From the list, select the VM you created.
    2. Click the Start button from the panel. A new window appears, showing the VM image loading.
    3. Log in with the credentials you created for the blueprint.
    4. You can verify if the packages you added to the blueprint are installed. For example:

      $ rpm -qa | grep firefox

10.11. Pushing customized images to OCI

With RHEL image builder, you can build customized images and push them directly to your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) instance. Then, you can start an image instance from the OCI dashboard.

Prerequisites

  • You have root or weldr group user access to the system.
  • You have an Oracle Cloud account.
  • You must be granted security access in an OCI policy by your administrator.
  • You have created an OCI Bucket in the OCI_REGION of your choice.

Procedure

  1. Open the RHEL image builder interface of the web console in a browser.
  2. Click Create blueprint. The Create blueprint wizard opens.
  3. On the Details page, enter a name for the blueprint, and optionally, a description. Click Next.
  4. On the Packages page, select the components and packages that you want to include in the image. Click Next.
  5. On the Customizations page, configure the customizations that you want for your blueprint. Click Next.
  6. On the Review page, click Create.
  7. To create an image, click Create Image. The Create image wizard opens.
  8. On the Image output page, complete the following steps:

    1. From the "Select a blueprint" drop-down menu, select the blueprint you want.
    2. From the "Image output type" drop-down menu, select Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (.qcow2).
    3. Check the "Upload OCI checkbox to upload your image to the OCI.
    4. Enter the "image size". Click Next.
  9. On the Upload to OCI - Authentication page, enter the following mandatory details:

    1. User OCID: you can find it in the Console on the page showing the user’s details.
    2. Private key
  10. On the Upload to OCI - Destination page, enter the following mandatory details and click Next.

    1. Image name: a name for the image to be uploaded.
    2. OCI bucket
    3. Bucket namespace
    4. Bucket region
    5. Bucket compartment
    6. Bucket tenancy
  11. Review the details in the wizard and click Finish.

RHEL image builder adds the compose of a RHEL .qcow2 image to the queue.

Verification

  1. Access the OCI dashboard Custom Images.
  2. Select the Compartment you specified for the image and locate the image in the Import image table.
  3. Click the image name and verify the image information.

10.12. Uploading QCOW2 images to OpenStack

With the RHEL image builder tool, you can create customized .qcow2 images that are suitable for uploading to OpenStack cloud deployments, and starting instances there. RHEL image builder creates images in the QCOW2 format, but with further changes specific to OpenStack.

Warning

Do not mistake the generic QCOW2 image type output format you create by using RHEL image builder with the OpenStack image type, which is also in the QCOW2 format, but contains further changes specific to OpenStack.

Prerequisites

  • You have created a blueprint.

Procedure

  1. Start the compose of a QCOW2 image.

    # composer-cli compose start blueprint_name openstack
  2. Check the status of the building.

    # composer-cli compose status

    After the image build finishes, you can download the image.

  3. Download the QCOW2 image:

    # composer-cli compose image UUID
  4. Access the OpenStack dashboard and click +Create Image.
  5. On the left menu, select the Admin tab.
  6. From the System Panel, click Image.

    The Create An Image wizard opens.

  7. In the Create An Image wizard:

    1. Enter a name for the image
    2. Click Browse to upload the QCOW2 image.
    3. From the Format dropdown list, select the QCOW2 - QEMU Emulator.
    4. Click Create Image.

      composer openstack upload image

  8. On the left menu, select the Project tab.

    1. From the Compute menu, select Instances.
    2. Click the Launch Instance button.

      The Launch Instance wizard opens.

    3. On the Details page, enter a name for the instance. Click Next.
    4. On the Source page, select the name of the image you uploaded. Click Next.
    5. On the Flavor page, select the machine resources that best fit your needs. Click Launch.

      composer openstack start instance

  9. You can run the image instance using any mechanism (CLI or OpenStack web UI) from the image. Use your private key via SSH to access the resulting instance. Log in as cloud-user.

10.13. Preparing to upload customized RHEL images to Alibaba Cloud

To deploy a customized RHEL image to the Alibaba Cloud, first you need to verify the customized image. The image needs a specific configuration to boot successfully, because Alibaba Cloud requests the custom images to meet certain requirements before you use it.

Note

RHEL image builder generates images that conform to Alibaba’s requirements. However, Red Hat recommends also using the Alibaba image_check tool to verify the format compliance of your image.

Prerequisites

  • You must have created an Alibaba image by using RHEL image builder.

Procedure

  1. Connect to the system containing the image that you want to check by using the Alibaba image_check tool.
  2. Download the image_check tool:

    $ curl -O https://docs-aliyun.cn-hangzhou.oss.aliyun-inc.com/assets/attach/73848/cn_zh/1557459863884/image_check
  3. Change the file permission of the image compliance tool:

    # chmod +x image_check
  4. Run the command to start the image compliance tool checkup:

    # ./image_check

    The tool verifies the system configuration and generates a report that is displayed on your screen. The image_check tool saves this report in the same folder where the image compliance tool is running.

Troubleshooting

If any of the Detection Items fail, follow the instructions in the terminal to correct it.

Additional resources

10.14. Uploading customized RHEL images to Alibaba

You can upload a customized AMI image you created by using RHEL image builder to the Object Storage Service (OSS).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in to the OSS console.
  2. In the Bucket menu on the left, select the bucket to which you want to upload an image.
  3. In the upper right menu, click the Files tab.
  4. Click Upload. A dialog window opens on the right side. Configure the following:

    • Upload To: Choose to upload the file to the Current directory or to a Specified directory.
    • File ACL: Choose the type of permission of the uploaded file.
  5. Click Upload.
  6. Select the image you want to upload to the OSS Console..
  7. Click Open.

10.15. Importing images to Alibaba Cloud

To import a customized Alibaba RHEL image that you created by using RHEL image builder to the Elastic Compute Service (ECS), follow the steps:

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in to the ECS console.

    1. On the left-side menu, click Images.
    2. On the upper right side, click Import Image. A dialog window opens.
    3. Confirm that you have set up the correct region where the image is located. Enter the following information:

      1. OSS Object Address: See how to obtain OSS Object Address.
      2. Image Name
      3. Operating System
      4. System Disk Size
      5. System Architecture
      6. Platform: Red Hat
    4. Optionally, provide the following details:

      1. Image Format: qcow2 or ami, depending on the uploaded image format.
      2. Image Description
      3. Add Images of Data Disks

        The address can be determined in the OSS management console. After selecting the required bucket in the left menu:

  2. Select Files section.
  3. Click the Details link on the right for the appropriate image.

    A window appears on the right side of the screen, showing image details. The OSS object address is in the URL box.

  4. Click OK.

    Note

    The importing process time can vary depending on the image size.

The customized image is imported to the ECS Console.

10.16. Creating an instance of a customized RHEL image using Alibaba Cloud

You can create instances of a customized RHEL image by using the Alibaba ECS Console.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in to the ECS console.
  2. On the left-side menu, select Instances.
  3. In the upper-right corner, click Create Instance. You are redirected to a new window.
  4. Complete all the required information. See Creating an instance by using the wizard for more details.
  5. Click Create Instance and confirm the order.

    Note

    You can see the option Create Order instead of Create Instance, depending on your subscription.

As a result, you have an active instance ready for deployment from the Alibaba ECS Console.

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