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3.7. 示例:监控 CPU 使用

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要监控实例的性能,请检查 Gnocchi 数据库,以识别您可以监控哪些指标,如内存或 CPU 使用量。

流程

  1. 要识别您可以监控的指标,请使用实例 UUID 输入 openstack metric resource show 命令:

    $ openstack metric resource show --type instance 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753
    
    +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field                 | Value                                                             |
    +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | availability_zone     | nova                                                              |
    | created_at            | 2021-09-16T16:16:24+00:00                                         |
    | created_by_project_id | 1adaed3aaa7f454c83307688c0825978                                  |
    | created_by_user_id    | d8429405a2764c3bb5184d29bd32c46a                                  |
    | creator               | d8429405a2764c3bb5184d29bd32c46a:1adaed3aaa7f454c83307688c0825978 |
    | deleted_at            | None                                                              |
    | display_name          | foo-2                                                             |
    | ended_at              | None                                                              |
    | flavor_id             | 0e5bae38-a949-4509-9868-82b353ef7ffb                              |
    | flavor_name           | workload_flavor_0                                                 |
    | host                  | compute-0.redhat.local                                            |
    | id                    | 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753                              |
    | image_ref             | 3cde20b4-7620-49f3-8622-eeacbdc43d49                              |
    | launched_at           | 2021-09-16T16:17:03+00:00                                         |
    | metrics               | cpu: a0375b0e-f799-47ea-b4ba-f494cf562ad8                         |
    |                       | disk.ephemeral.size: cd082824-dfd6-49c3-afdf-6bfc8c12bd2a         |
    |                       | disk.root.size: cd88dc61-ba85-45eb-a7b9-4686a6a0787b              |
    |                       | memory.usage: 7a1e787c-5fa7-4ac3-a2c6-4c3821eaf80a                |
    |                       | memory: ebd38ef7-cdc1-49f1-87c1-0b627d7c189e                      |
    |                       | vcpus: cc9353f1-bb24-4d37-ab8f-d3e887ca8856                       |
    | original_resource_id  | 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753                              |
    | project_id            | cdda46e0b5be4782bc0480dac280832a                                  |
    | revision_end          | None                                                              |
    | revision_start        | 2021-09-16T17:00:41.227453+00:00                                  |
    | server_group          | None                                                              |
    | started_at            | 2021-09-16T16:17:08.444032+00:00                                  |
    | type                  | instance                                                          |
    | user_id               | f00de1d74408428cadf483ea7dbb2a83                                  |
    +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+

    因此,指标值列出了您可以使用 Alarming 服务监控的组件,如 cpu

  2. 要监控 CPU 用量,请使用 cpu 指标:

    $ openstack metric show --resource-id 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753 cpu
    +--------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field                          | Value                                                             |
    +--------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | archive_policy/name            | ceilometer-high-rate                                              |
    | creator                        | d8429405a2764c3bb5184d29bd32c46a:1adaed3aaa7f454c83307688c0825978 |
    | id                             | a0375b0e-f799-47ea-b4ba-f494cf562ad8                              |
    | name                           | cpu                                                               |
    | resource/created_by_project_id | 1adaed3aaa7f454c83307688c0825978                                  |
    | resource/created_by_user_id    | d8429405a2764c3bb5184d29bd32c46a                                  |
    | resource/creator               | d8429405a2764c3bb5184d29bd32c46a:1adaed3aaa7f454c83307688c0825978 |
    | resource/ended_at              | None                                                              |
    | resource/id                    | 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753                              |
    | resource/original_resource_id  | 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753                              |
    | resource/project_id            | cdda46e0b5be4782bc0480dac280832a                                  |
    | resource/revision_end          | None                                                              |
    | resource/revision_start        | 2021-09-16T17:00:41.227453+00:00                                  |
    | resource/started_at            | 2021-09-16T16:17:08.444032+00:00                                  |
    | resource/type                  | instance                                                          |
    | resource/user_id               | f00de1d74408428cadf483ea7dbb2a83                                  |
    | unit                           | ns                                                                |
    +--------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+

    archive_policy 定义计算 std, count, min, max, sum, mean 值的聚合间隔。

  3. 检查 cpu 指标当前选择的归档策略:

    $ openstack metric archive-policy show ceilometer-high-rate
    
    +---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | Field               | Value                                                             |
    +---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
    | aggregation_methods | rate:mean, mean                                                   |
    | back_window         | 0                                                                 |
    | definition          | - timespan: 1:00:00, granularity: 0:00:01, points: 3600           |
    |                     | - timespan: 1 day, 0:00:00, granularity: 0:01:00, points: 1440    |
    |                     | - timespan: 365 days, 0:00:00, granularity: 1:00:00, points: 8760 |
    | name                | ceilometer-high-rate                                              |
    +---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  4. 使用 Alarming 服务创建查询 cpu 的监控任务。此任务会根据您指定的设置触发事件。例如,要在延长持续时间超过 80% 的实例时引发日志条目,请使用以下命令:

    $ openstack alarm create \
      --project-id 3cee262b907b4040b26b678d7180566b \
      --name high-cpu \
      --type gnocchi_resources_threshold \
      --description 'High CPU usage' \
      --metric cpu \
      --threshold 800,000,000.0 \
      --comparison-operator ge \
      --aggregation-method mean \
      --granularity 300 \
      --evaluation-periods 1 \
      --alarm-action 'log://' \
      --ok-action 'log://' \
      --resource-type instance \
      --resource-id 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753
    
      +---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
      | Field                     | Value                                |
      +---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
      | aggregation_method        | rate:mean                            |
      | alarm_actions             | ['log:']                             |
      | alarm_id                  | c7b326bd-a68c-4247-9d2b-56d9fb18bf38 |
      | comparison_operator       | ge                                   |
      | description               | High CPU usage                       |
      | enabled                   | True                                 |
      | evaluation_periods        | 1                                    |
      | granularity               | 300                                  |
      | insufficient_data_actions | []                                   |
      | metric                    | cpu                                  |
      | name                      | high-cpu                             |
      | ok_actions                | ['log:']                             |
      | project_id                | cdda46e0b5be4782bc0480dac280832a     |
      | repeat_actions            | False                                |
      | resource_id               | 22592ae1-922a-4f51-b935-20c938f48753 |
      | resource_type             | instance                             |
      | severity                  | low                                  |
      | state                     | insufficient data                    |
      | state_reason              | Not evaluated yet                    |
      | state_timestamp           | 2021-09-21T08:02:57.090592           |
      | threshold                 | 800000000.0                          |
      | time_constraints          | []                                   |
      | timestamp                 | 2021-09-21T08:02:57.090592           |
      | type                      | gnocchi_resources_threshold          |
      | user_id                   | f00de1d74408428cadf483ea7dbb2a83     |
      +---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    • compare-operator:ge 运算符定义了在 CPU 使用量大于或等于 80% 时触发警报。
    • granularity :指标关联了一个归档策略,策略可以有不同的粒度。例如,一个月有 5 分钟的聚合时间为 1 小时 + 1 小时聚合。granularity 值必须与归档策略中描述的持续时间匹配。
    • assessment-periods:在警报触发前需要传递的粒度周期数。例如,如果将此值设置为 2,则在警报触发前,CPU 用量必须超过 80%。
    • [u'log://'] :当您将 alerts_actionsok_actions 设置为 [u'log://'], events (如事件)被触发或返回到正常状态时,会将警报记录到 aodh 日志文件。

      注意

      您可以定义在警报触发时运行的不同操作(ADVANCED_actions),以及当它返回到正常状态(ok_actions)时,如 Webhook URL。

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