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Chapter 10. Deprecated functionality

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This part provides an overview of functionality that has been deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.

Deprecated functionality will likely not be supported in future major releases of this product and is not recommended for new deployments. For the most recent list of deprecated functionality within a particular major release, refer to the latest version of release documentation.

The support status of deprecated functionality remains unchanged within Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9. For information about the length of support, see Red Hat Enterprise Linux Life Cycle and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Application Streams Life Cycle.

Deprecated hardware components are not recommended for new deployments on the current or future major releases. Hardware driver updates are limited to security and critical fixes only. Red Hat recommends replacing this hardware as soon as reasonably feasible.

A package can be deprecated and not recommended for further use. Under certain circumstances, a package can be removed from a product. Product documentation then identifies more recent packages that offer functionality similar, identical, or more advanced to the one deprecated, and provides further recommendations.

For information regarding functionality that is present in RHEL 8 but has been removed in RHEL 9, see Considerations in adopting RHEL 9.

10.1. Installer and image creation

Deprecated Kickstart commands

The following Kickstart commands have been deprecated:

  • timezone --ntpservers
  • timezone --nontp
  • logging --level
  • %packages --excludeWeakdeps
  • %packages --instLangs
  • %anaconda
  • pwpolicy

Note that where only specific options are listed, the base command and its other options are still available and not deprecated. Using the deprecated commands in Kickstart files prints a warning in the logs. You can turn the deprecated command warnings into errors with the inst.ksstrict boot option.

Bugzilla:1899167

User and Group customizations in the edge-commit and edge-container blueprints have been deprecated

Specifying a user or group customization in the blueprints is deprecated for the edge-commit and edge-container image types, because the user customization disappears when you upgrade the image and do not specify the user in the blueprint again. Therefore, you should specify the users and groups directly in the blueprints for edge image types which are used to deploy an existing OSTree commit, such as edge-raw-image, edge-installer, and edge-simplified-installer.

Note that specifying a user or group customization in blueprints remains supported, but the support will be eventually removed.

Bugzilla:2173928

10.2. Subscription management

The --token option of the subscription-manager command is deprecated

The --token=<TOKEN> option of the subscription-manager register command is an authentication method that helps register your system to Red Hat. This option depends on capabilities offered by the entitlement server. The default entitlement server, subscription.rhsm.redhat.com, is planning to turn off this capability. As a consequence, attempting to use subscription-manager register --token=<TOKEN> might fail with the following error message:

Token authentication not supported by the entitlement server

You can continue registering your system using other authorization methods, such as including paired options --username / --password and --org / --activationkey of the subscription-manager register command.

Bugzilla:2163716

10.3. Shells and command-line tools

Setting the TMPDIR variable in the ReaR configuration file is deprecated

Setting the TMPDIR environment variable in the /etc/rear/local.conf or /etc/rear/site.conf ReaR configuration file), by using a statement such as export TMPDIR=…​, does not work and is deprecated.

To specify a custom directory for ReaR temporary files, export the variable in the shell environment before executing ReaR. For example, execute the export TMPDIR=…​ statement and then execute the rear command in the same shell session or script.

Jira:RHELDOCS-18049

The dump utility from the dump package has been deprecated

The dump utility used for backup of file systems has been deprecated and will not be available in RHEL 9.

In RHEL 9, Red Hat recommends using the tar, dd, or bacula, backup utility, based on type of usage, which provides full and safe backups on ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems.

Note that the restore utility from the dump package remains available and supported in RHEL 9 and is available as the restore package.

Bugzilla:1997366

The SQLite database backend in Bacula has been deprecated

The Bacula backup system supported multiple database backends: PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite. The SQLite backend has been deprecated and will become unsupported in a later release of RHEL. As a replacement, migrate to one of the other backends (PostgreSQL or MySQL) and do not use the SQLite backend in new deployments.

Bugzilla:2089395

10.4. Security

SHA-1 is deprecated for cryptographic purposes

The usage of the SHA-1 message digest for cryptographic purposes has been deprecated in RHEL 9. The digest produced by SHA-1 is not considered secure because of many documented successful attacks based on finding hash collisions. The RHEL core crypto components no longer create signatures using SHA-1 by default. Applications in RHEL 9 have been updated to avoid using SHA-1 in security-relevant use cases.

Among the exceptions, the HMAC-SHA1 message authentication code and the Universal Unique Identifier (UUID) values can still be created using SHA-1 because these use cases do not currently pose security risks. SHA-1 also can be used in limited cases connected with important interoperability and compatibility concerns, such as Kerberos and WPA-2. See the List of RHEL applications using cryptography that is not compliant with FIPS 140-3 section in the RHEL 9 Security hardening document for more details.

If your scenario requires the use of SHA-1 for verifying existing or third-party cryptographic signatures, you can enable it by entering the following command:

# update-crypto-policies --set DEFAULT:SHA1

Alternatively, you can switch the system-wide crypto policies to the LEGACY policy. Note that LEGACY also enables many other algorithms that are not secure.

Jira:RHELPLAN-110763

fapolicyd.rules is deprecated

The /etc/fapolicyd/rules.d/ directory for files containing allow and deny execution rules replaces the /etc/fapolicyd/fapolicyd.rules file. The fagenrules script now merges all component rule files in this directory to the /etc/fapolicyd/compiled.rules file. Rules in /etc/fapolicyd/fapolicyd.trust are still processed by the fapolicyd framework but only for ensuring backward compatibility.

Bugzilla:2054740

SCP is deprecated in RHEL 9

The secure copy protocol (SCP) is deprecated because it has known security vulnerabilities. The SCP API remains available for the RHEL 9 lifecycle but using it reduces system security.

  • In the scp utility, SCP is replaced by the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) by default.
  • The OpenSSH suite does not use SCP in RHEL 9.
  • SCP is deprecated in the libssh library.

Jira:RHELPLAN-99136

Digest-MD5 in SASL is deprecated

The Digest-MD5 authentication mechanism in the Simple Authentication Security Layer (SASL) framework is deprecated, and it might be removed from the cyrus-sasl packages in a future major release.

Bugzilla:1995600

OpenSSL deprecates MD2, MD4, MDC2, Whirlpool, Blowfish, CAST, DES, IDEA, RC2, RC4, RC5, SEED, and PBKDF1

The OpenSSL project has deprecated a set of cryptographic algorithms because they are insecure, uncommonly used, or both. Red Hat also discourages the use of those algorithms, and RHEL 9 provides them for migrating encrypted data to use new algorithms. Users must not depend on those algorithms for the security of their systems.

The implementations of the following algorithms have been moved to the legacy provider in OpenSSL: MD2, MD4, MDC2, Whirlpool, Blowfish, CAST, DES, IDEA, RC2, RC4, RC5, SEED, and PBKDF1.

See the /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf configuration file for instructions on how to load the legacy provider and enable support for the deprecated algorithms.

Bugzilla:1975836

/etc/system-fips is now deprecated

Support for indicating FIPS mode through the /etc/system-fips file has been removed, and the file will not be included in future versions of RHEL. To install RHEL in FIPS mode, add the fips=1 parameter to the kernel command line during the system installation. You can check whether RHEL operates in FIPS mode by using the fips-mode-setup --check command.

Jira:RHELPLAN-103232

libcrypt.so.1 is now deprecated

The libcrypt.so.1 library is now deprecated, and it might be removed in a future version of RHEL.

Bugzilla:2034569

OpenSSL requires padding for RSA encryption in FIPS mode

OpenSSL no longer supports RSA encryption without padding in FIPS mode. RSA encryption without padding is uncommon and is rarely used. Note that key encapsulation with RSA (RSASVE) does not use padding but is still supported.

Bugzilla:2168665

10.5. Networking

Network teams are deprecated in RHEL 9

The teamd service and the libteam library are deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 and will be removed in the next major release. As a replacement, configure a bond instead of a network team.

Red Hat focuses its efforts on kernel-based bonding to avoid maintaining two features, bonds and teams, that have similar functions. The bonding code has a high customer adoption, is robust, and has an active community development. As a result, the bonding code receives enhancements and updates.

For details about how to migrate a team to a bond, see Migrating a network team configuration to network bond.

Bugzilla:1935544

NetworkManager connection profiles in ifcfg format are deprecated

In RHEL 9.0 and later, connection profiles in ifcfg format are deprecated. The next major RHEL release will remove the support for this format. However, in RHEL 9, NetworkManager still processes and updates existing profiles in this format if you modify them.

By default, NetworkManager now stores connection profiles in keyfile format in the /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ directory. Unlike the ifcfg format, the keyfile format supports all connection settings that NetworkManager provides. For further details about the keyfile format and how to migrate profiles, see NetworkManager connection profiles in keyfile format.

Bugzilla:1894877

The iptables back end in firewalld is deprecated

In RHEL 9, the iptables framework is deprecated. As a consequence, the iptables backend and the direct interface in firewalld are also deprecated. Instead of the direct interface you can use the native features in firewalld to configure the required rules.

Bugzilla:2089200

10.6. Kernel

ATM encapsulation is deprecated in RHEL 9

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) encapsulation enables Layer-2 (Point-to-Point Protocol, Ethernet) or Layer-3 (IP) connectivity for the ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL-5). Red Hat has not been providing support for ATM NIC drivers since RHEL 7. The support for ATM implementation is being dropped in RHEL 9. These protocols are currently used only in chipsets, which support the ADSL technology and are being phased out by manufacturers. Therefore, ATM encapsulation is deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.

For more information, see PPP Over AAL5, Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5, and Classical IP and ARP over ATM.

Bugzilla:2058153

The kexec_load system call for kexec-tools has been deprecated

The kexec_load system call, which loads the second kernel, will not be supported in future RHEL releases. The kexec_file_load system call replaces kexec_load and is now the default system call on all architectures.

Bugzilla:2113873

Network teams are deprecated in RHEL 9

The teamd service and the libteam library are deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 and will be removed in the next major release. As a replacement, configure a bond instead of a network team.

Red Hat focuses its efforts on kernel-based bonding to avoid maintaining two features, bonds and teams, that have similar functions. The bonding code has a high customer adoption, is robust, and has an active community development. As a result, the bonding code receives enhancements and updates.

For details about how to migrate a team to a bond, see Migrating a network team configuration to network bond.

Bugzilla:2013884

10.7. File systems and storage

lvm2-activation-generator and its generated services removed in RHEL 9.0

The lvm2-activation-generator program and its generated services lvm2-activation, lvm2-activation-early, and lvm2-activation-net are removed in RHEL 9.0. The lvm.conf event_activation setting, used to activate the services, is no longer functional. The only method for auto activating volume groups is event based activation.

Bugzilla:2038183

10.8. Dynamic programming languages, web and database servers

libdb has been deprecated

RHEL 8 and RHEL 9 currently provide Berkeley DB (libdb) version 5.3.28, which is distributed under the LGPLv2 license. The upstream Berkeley DB version 6 is available under the AGPLv3 license, which is more restrictive.

The libdb package is deprecated as of RHEL 9 and might not be available in future major RHEL releases.

In addition, cryptographic algorithms have been removed from libdb in RHEL 9 and multiple libdb dependencies have been removed from RHEL 9.

Users of libdb are advised to migrate to a different key-value database. For more information, see the Knowledgebase article Available replacements for the deprecated Berkeley DB (libdb) in RHEL.

Bugzilla:1927780, Jira:RHELPLAN-80695, Bugzilla:1974657

10.9. Compilers and development tools

Smaller size of keys than 2048 are deprecated by openssl 3.0

Key sizes smaller than 2048 bits are deprecated by openssl 3.0 and no longer work in Go’s FIPS mode.

Bugzilla:2111072

Some PKCS1 v1.5 modes are now deprecated

Some PKCS1 v1.5 modes are not approved in FIPS-140-3 for encryption and are disabled. They will no longer work in Go’s FIPS mode.

Bugzilla:2092016

10.10. Identity Management

SHA-1 in OpenDNSSec is now deprecated

OpenDNSSec supports exporting Digital Signatures and authentication records using the SHA-1 algorithm. The use of the SHA-1 algorithm is no longer supported. With the RHEL 9 release, SHA-1 in OpenDNSSec is deprecated and it might be removed in a future minor release. Additionally, OpenDNSSec support is limited to its integration with Red Hat Identity Management. OpenDNSSec is not supported standalone.

Bugzilla:1979521

The SSSD implicit files provider domain is disabled by default

The SSSD implicit files provider domain, which retrieves user information from local files such as /etc/shadow and group information from /etc/groups, is now disabled by default.

To retrieve user and group information from local files with SSSD:

  1. Configure SSSD. Choose one of the following options:

    1. Explicitly configure a local domain with the id_provider=files option in the sssd.conf configuration file.

      [domain/local]
      id_provider=files
      ...
    2. Enable the files provider by setting enable_files_domain=true in the sssd.conf configuration file.

      [sssd]
      enable_files_domain = true
  2. Configure the name services switch.

    # authselect enable-feature with-files-provider

Jira:RHELPLAN-100639

-h and -p options were deprecated in OpenLDAP client utilities.

The upstream OpenLDAP project has deprecated the -h and -p options in its utilities, and recommends using the -H option instead to specify the LDAP URI. As a consequence, RHEL 9 has deprecated these two options in all OpenLDAP client utilities. The -h and -p options will be removed from RHEL products in future releases.

Jira:RHELPLAN-137660

The SSSD files provider has been deprecated

The SSSD files provider has been deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 9. The files provider might be removed from a future release of RHEL.

Jira:RHELPLAN-139805

The nsslapd-idlistscanlimit parameter is deprecated and its default value has been changed

With the new filter reordering optimization, the nsslapd-idlistscanlimit attribute impact on search performance is more harmful than helpful. As a result, the attribute is deprecated. Additionally, the default value has been changed to 2147483646 (unlimited).

Bugzilla:1952241

The SMB1 protocol is deprecated in Samba

Starting with Samba 4.11, the insecure Server Message Block version 1 (SMB1) protocol is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

To improve the security, by default, SMB1 is disabled in the Samba server and client utilities.

Jira:RHELDOCS-16612

10.11. Desktop

GTK 2 is now deprecated

The legacy GTK 2 toolkit and the following, related packages have been deprecated:

  • adwaita-gtk2-theme
  • gnome-common
  • gtk2
  • gtk2-immodules
  • hexchat

Several other packages currently depend on GTK 2. These have been modified so that they no longer depend on the deprecated packages in a future major RHEL release.

If you maintain an application that uses GTK 2, Red Hat recommends that you port the application to GTK 4.

Jira:RHELPLAN-131882

LibreOffice is deprecated

The LibreOffice RPM packages are now deprecated and will be removed in a future major RHEL release. LibreOffice continues to be fully supported through the entire life cycle of RHEL 7, 8, and 9.

As a replacement for the RPM packages, Red Hat recommends that you install LibreOffice from either of the following sources provided by The Document Foundation:

Jira:RHELDOCS-16300

10.12. Graphics infrastructures

Motif has been deprecated

The Motif widget toolkit has been deprecated in RHEL, because development in the upstream Motif community is inactive.

The following Motif packages have been deprecated, including their development and debugging variants:

  • motif
  • openmotif
  • openmotif21
  • openmotif22

Additionally, the motif-static package has been removed.

Red Hat recommends using the GTK toolkit as a replacement. GTK is more maintainable and provides new features compared to Motif.

Jira:RHELPLAN-98983

10.13. Red Hat Enterprise Linux system roles

The network system role displays a deprecation warning when configuring teams on RHEL 9 nodes

The network teaming capabilities have been deprecated in RHEL 9. As a result, using the network RHEL system role on a RHEL 8 control node to configure a network team on RHEL 9 nodes, shows a warning about the deprecation.

Bugzilla:1999770

10.14. Virtualization

SecureBoot image verification using SHA1-based signatures is deprecated

Performing SecureBoot image verification using SHA1-based signatures on UEFI (PE/COFF) executables has become deprecated. Instead, Red Hat recommends using signatures based on the SHA2 algorithm, or later.

Bugzilla:1935497

Limited support for virtual machine snapshots

Creating snapshots of virtual machines (VMs) is currently only supported for VMs not using the UEFI firmware. In addition, during the snapshot operation, the QEMU monitor may become blocked, which negatively impacts the hypervisor performance for certain workloads.

Also note that the current mechanism of creating VM snapshots has been deprecated, and Red Hat does not recommend using VM snapshots in a production environment. However, a new VM snapshot mechanism is under development and is planned to be fully implemented in a future minor release of RHEL 9.

Jira:RHELPLAN-15509, Bugzilla:1621944

The virtual floppy driver has become deprecated

The isa-fdc driver, which controls virtual floppy disk devices, is now deprecated, and will become unsupported in a future release of RHEL. Therefore, to ensure forward compatibility with migrated virtual machines (VMs), Red Hat discourages using floppy disk devices in VMs hosted on RHEL 9.

Bugzilla:1965079

qcow2-v2 image format is deprecated

With RHEL 9, the qcow2-v2 format for virtual disk images has become deprecated, and will become unsupported in a future major release of RHEL. In addition, the RHEL 9 Image Builder cannot create disk images in the qcow2-v2 format.

Instead of qcow2-v2, Red Hat strongly recommends using qcow2-v3. To convert a qcow2-v2 image to a later format version, use the qemu-img amend command.

Bugzilla:1951814

virt-manager has been deprecated

The Virtual Machine Manager application, also known as virt-manager, has been deprecated. The RHEL web console, also known as Cockpit, is intended to become its replacement in a subsequent release. It is, therefore, recommended that you use the web console for managing virtualization in a GUI. Note, however, that some features available in virt-manager may not be yet available in the RHEL web console.

Jira:RHELPLAN-10304

libvirtd has become deprecated

The monolithic libvirt daemon, libvirtd, has been deprecated in RHEL 9, and will be removed in a future major release of RHEL. Note that you can still use libvirtd for managing virtualization on your hypervisor, but Red Hat recommends switching to the newly introduced modular libvirt daemons. For instructions and details, see the RHEL 9 Configuring and Managing Virtualization document.

Jira:RHELPLAN-113995

Legacy CPU models are now deprecated

A significant number of CPU models have become deprecated and will become unsupported for use in virtual machines (VMs) in a future major release of RHEL. The deprecated models are as follows:

  • For Intel: models prior to Intel Xeon 55xx and 75xx Processor families (also known as Nehalem)
  • For AMD: models prior to AMD Opteron G4
  • For IBM Z: models prior to IBM z14

To check whether your VM is using a deprecated CPU model, use the virsh dominfo utility, and look for a line similar to the following in the Messages section:

tainted: use of deprecated configuration settings
deprecated configuration: CPU model 'i486'

Bugzilla:2060839

RDMA-based live migration is deprecated

With this update, migrating running virtual machines using Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) has become deprecated. As a result, it is still possible to use the rdma:// migration URI to request migration over RDMA, but this feature will become unsupported in a future major release of RHEL.

Jira:RHELPLAN-153267

10.15. Containers

Running RHEL 9 containers on a RHEL 7 host is not supported

Running RHEL 9 containers on a RHEL 7 host is not supported. It might work, but it is not guaranteed.

For more information, see Red Hat Enterprise Linux Container Compatibility Matrix.

Jira:RHELPLAN-100087

SHA1 hash algorithm within Podman has been deprecated

The SHA1 algorithm used to generate the filename of the rootless network namespace is no longer supported in Podman. Therefore, rootless containers started before updating to Podman 4.1.1 or later have to be restarted if they are joined to a network (and not just using slirp4netns) to ensure they can connect to containers started after the upgrade.

Bugzilla:2069279

rhel9/pause has been deprecated

The rhel9/pause container image has been deprecated.

Bugzilla:2106816

The CNI network stack has been deprecated

The Container Network Interface (CNI) network stack will be deprecated in a future minor version. Previously, containers connected to the single Container Network Interface (CNI) plugin only via DNS. Podman v.4.0 introduced a new Netavark network stack. You can use the Netavark network stack with Podman and other Open Container Initiative (OCI) container management applications. The Netavark network stack for Podman is also compatible with advanced Docker functionalities. Containers in multiple networks can access containers on any of those networks.

For more information, see Switching the network stack from CNI to Netavark.

Jira:RHELPLAN-147725

10.16. Deprecated packages

This section lists packages that have been deprecated and will probably not be included in a future major release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

For changes to packages between RHEL 8 and RHEL 9, see Changes to packages in the Considerations in adopting RHEL 9 document.

Important

The support status of deprecated packages remains unchanged within RHEL 9. For more information about the length of support, see Red Hat Enterprise Linux Life Cycle and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Application Streams Life Cycle.

The following packages have been deprecated in RHEL 9:

  • iptables-devel
  • iptables-libs
  • iptables-nft
  • iptables-nft-services
  • iptables-utils
  • libdb
  • mcpp
  • mod_auth_mellon
  • motif
  • motif-devel
  • python3-pytz
  • xorg-x11-server-Xorg
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