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Chapter 1. Securing RHEL during installation

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Security begins even before you start the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Configuring your system securely from the beginning makes it easier to implement additional security settings later.

1.1. BIOS and UEFI security

Password protection for the BIOS (or BIOS equivalent) and the boot loader can prevent unauthorized users who have physical access to systems from booting using removable media or obtaining root privileges through single user mode. The security measures you should take to protect against such attacks depends both on the sensitivity of the information about the workstation and the location of the machine.

For example, if a machine is used in a trade show and contains no sensitive information, then it may not be critical to prevent such attacks. However, if an employee’s laptop with private, unencrypted SSH keys for the corporate network is left unattended at that same trade show, it could lead to a major security breach with ramifications for the entire company.

If the workstation is located in a place where only authorized or trusted people have access, however, then securing the BIOS or the boot loader may not be necessary.

1.1.1. BIOS passwords

The two primary reasons for password protecting the BIOS of a computer are[1]:

Preventing changes to BIOS settings
If an intruder has access to the BIOS, they can set it to boot from a CD-ROM or a flash drive. This makes it possible for them to enter rescue mode or single user mode, which in turn allows them to start arbitrary processes on the system or copy sensitive data.
Preventing system booting
Some BIOSes allow password protection of the boot process. When activated, an attacker is forced to enter a password before the BIOS launches the boot loader.

Because the methods for setting a BIOS password vary between computer manufacturers, consult the computer’s manual for specific instructions.

If you forget the BIOS password, it can either be reset with jumpers on the motherboard or by disconnecting the CMOS battery. For this reason, it is good practice to lock the computer case if possible. However, consult the manual for the computer or motherboard before attempting to disconnect the CMOS battery.

1.1.2. Non-BIOS-based systems security

Other systems and architectures use different programs to perform low-level tasks roughly equivalent to those of the BIOS on x86 systems. For example, the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) shell.

For instructions on password protecting BIOS-like programs, see the manufacturer’s instructions.

1.2. Disk partitioning

The recommended practices for disk partitioning differ for installations on bare-metal machines and for virtualized or cloud environments that support adjusting virtual disk hardware and file systems containing already-installed operating systems.

To ensure separation and protection of data on bare-metal installations, create separate partitions for the /boot, /, /home, /tmp, and /var/tmp/ directories:

This partition is the first partition that is read by the system during boot up. The boot loader and kernel images that are used to boot your system into Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 are stored in this partition. This partition should not be encrypted. If this partition is included in / and that partition is encrypted or otherwise becomes unavailable then your system is not able to boot.
When user data (/home) is stored in / instead of in a separate partition, the partition can fill up causing the operating system to become unstable. Also, when upgrading your system to the next version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 it is a lot easier when you can keep your data in the /home partition as it is not be overwritten during installation. If the root partition (/) becomes corrupt your data could be lost forever. By using a separate partition there is slightly more protection against data loss. You can also target this partition for frequent backups.
/tmp and /var/tmp/
Both the /tmp and /var/tmp/ directories are used to store data that does not need to be stored for a long period of time. However, if a lot of data floods one of these directories it can consume all of your storage space. If this happens and these directories are stored within / then your system could become unstable and crash. For this reason, moving these directories into their own partitions is a good idea.

For virtual machines or cloud instances, the separate /boot, /home, /tmp, and /var/tmp partitions are optional because you can increase the virtual disk size and the / partition if it begins to fill up. Set up monitoring to regularly check the / partition usage so that it does not fill up before you increase the virtual disk size accordingly.


During the installation process, you have an option to encrypt partitions. You must supply a passphrase. This passphrase serves as a key to unlock the bulk encryption key, which is used to secure the partition’s data.

1.3. Restricting network connectivity during the installation process

When installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9, the installation medium represents a snapshot of the system at a particular time. Because of this, it may not be up-to-date with the latest security fixes and may be vulnerable to certain issues that were fixed only after the system provided by the installation medium was released.

When installing a potentially vulnerable operating system, always limit exposure only to the closest necessary network zone. The safest choice is the “no network” zone, which means to leave your machine disconnected during the installation process. In some cases, a LAN or intranet connection is sufficient while the Internet connection is the riskiest. To follow the best security practices, choose the closest zone with your repository while installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 from a network.

1.4. Installing the minimum amount of packages required

It is best practice to install only the packages you will use because each piece of software on your computer could possibly contain a vulnerability. If you are installing from the DVD media, take the opportunity to select exactly what packages you want to install during the installation. If you find you need another package, you can always add it to the system later.

1.5. Post-installation procedures

The following steps are the security-related procedures that should be performed immediately after installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.

  • Update your system. Enter the following command as root:

    # dnf update
  • Even though the firewall service, firewalld, is automatically enabled with the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it might be explicitly disabled, for example, in the Kickstart configuration. In such a case, re-enable the firewall.

    To start firewalld enter the following commands as root:

    # systemctl start firewalld
    # systemctl enable firewalld
  • To enhance security, disable services you do not need. For example, if no printers are installed on your computer, disable the cups service by using the following command:

    # systemctl disable cups

    To review active services, enter the following command:

    $ systemctl list-units | grep service

[1] Because system BIOSes differ between manufacturers, some may not support password protection of either type, while others may support one type but not the other.
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